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This is also why this publication is presented in a format unlike that of the traditional catalog, different from what is displayed on the walls of the pavilion; it rather offers the possibility of an immersion into the theme.

The concept and title Walls of Air was conceived as a response to the theme of Freespace proposed by curators Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara in order to provoke questions about: 1. Therefore, a reflection began on how much Brazilian architecture and its urban developments are, in fact, free. Without the ambition of reaching an answer, but hoping to open the conversation to a large and diverse public, we chose to shed light on processes that often go unnoticed due to their nature or scale.

To discuss these ideas, it was decided to present existing projects as well as to develop research to create new content. This bilateral structure is also reflected in the spatial occupation of the Brazilian Pavilion, a building designed by architects Mindlin, Palanti, Amaral and Marchesin in The projects were selected through an 02 — Human Flows open call, an unprecedented initiative in We mapped the contemporary movements the history of the Brazilian representations at the Venice Biennale.

From those, transportation of commodities, as well as the seventeen projects were selected. The scars that these flows leave on the territory. How unrestrained is the trespassing of limits between disparate urban fabrics? How generous are the Brazilian housing programs in offering the right to the city?

How unobstructed is the agenda of the real estate market against that of Architecture? How detached from a cohesive vision of Brazil has the urban formation of the country been? How unimpeded is the access to the Brazilian border? How unregulated is the relationship between human and natural ecosystems? How sensitive is the urban environment to the movement of commodities? How open is Brazil to the reception of immigrants? How frank is the exchange of Brazilian architects with the world?

With one representative per theme, the multidisciplinary board was tasked with guiding the team throughout the research and point out sources and paths for the use of the data and the development of the ideas. Part of this exchange was recorded in interviews, which are published here. They were planned and edited in collaboration with Coletivo Entre, from Rio de Janeiro, and recorded with the generous support of Arq.

In parallel with this, we probed the national scene in search of researchers and professionals with works relevant to these ten approaches, and invited more than twenty specialists to write an essay exploring each of them more in-depth.

Some of them worked alone, others involved their research groups academic or private companies in the task.

The result of this complex constellation of people, who worked for six months, is presented in the Brazilian Pavilion in the form of ten large-scale cartographic drawings, reproduced in miniature for this publication.

The choice was made in part with the aim of escaping from traditional exhibition models, saturated by realistic images photographs, renderings, etc. They are narratives within narratives.

At the same time that they offer new ways of understanding the information presented, the drawings bear a carefully articulated aesthetics which, in a certain way, refers to the idea of painting and a relationship with the world of the visual arts, impossible to ignore in the context of the Venice Biennale.

Analyse des paramètres hydrobiologiques dans la remontée de Cabo Frio (Brésil)

This final link was strengthened by inviting Brazilian and international artists who produce works in Brazil to participate in this publication. The selection of these artists and artworks constitutes a group of people and works that are sensitive to the same themes that concern us at this Biennale. Artistic and documentary photography, video, performance, digital collage, sculpture, and painting are the mediums used to promote a conversation about tangible or invisible barriers; the clashing between nature and construction; the divergences between the policies, planning, and the realities of housing, as well as the wounds resulting from projects carried out according to economic logics distant from the scale of the human being.

These critical works reveal a generation that considers the physical space as being indissociable from their work, and resorts to artistic practices to express their concerns. Writing this text just a few weeks before inaugurating the Brazilian Pavilion in Venice, we look at each of the more than people who believed in our idea and are extremely grateful for their confidence, certain that we have taken advantage of this opportunity to unleash a wave of discussion about architecture as an agent for transposing or revealing some of the pressing issues affecting our country and our profession.

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We hope that this book will be the beginning, and not the end, of the conversation about our Walls of Air. In the early 20th century, sociologist Georg Simmel famously defined the social character of the traveler as someone constantly in-between, near and far, whose main quality comes from outside of the place they occupy.

Which walls are breached once immigration movements become part of a discipline often closed and self-referential?

This chapter looks at the benefits of global practices—which historically are not strange to the profession in Brazil. Three moments were of special interest: the large income of foreign professors during the implementation of the first architecture school in in Rio de Janeiro; the immigration of European professionals to South America during and after the great war years—the German Franz Heep; the Polish Victor Reif; and the Italians Lina Bo Bardi, Giancarlo Palanti and Gian Carlo Gasperini, are examples of this moment; and finally the period after the military dictatorship, when various architects and professors—like Vilanova Artigas—returned from exile bringing with them the most diverse set of references.

The movement of architecture students and professionals abroad, motivated by better opportunities of career development, recently grew in Brazil. At an educational level, federal initiatives fostering study-abroad-programs through institutional partnerships between universities have been one of the main factors stimulating the flow of a skilled portion of the population outside of the country, especially in the past two decades.

While the focus of the program was not directly related to the study of architecture, it is important to recognize its role in encouraging the enrollment of Brazilians students in institutions overseas. Between and , Brazilian students went from the 11th to the 6th largest international presence in higher-education institutions in the United States. While Science without Borders continued to support graduate and postgraduate programs, the cost of its full implementation was said too high for the country, which was swept in an economic recession at the beginning of , as Claudio Haddad remarks in his interview, the program was not completely adjusted to the economic reality of Brazil.

In that sense, this chapter aims to understand the impact of these policies and trends on architecture and design professionals, presenting a quantified reading of the presence of Brazilian architects in cities around the world. The information presented is a result of data sourcing within specialized institutions as well as an open data collection platform organized in the website developed for this exhibition.

In her essay, Ana Luiza Nobre discusses the role of domestic architecture as fundamental to the influx of Brazilians into Portugal. The lines merge and disappear, at times suggesting the immaterial reality of the borders, at times suggesting alternative geographies. At the end, Brazil also becomes a product of the crossbreeding of experiences.

The map privileges the American continent and the Western portions of Europe, where the exchanges have been larger in number. The spikes in these areas represent the number of Brazilian architecture students received by foreign universities between and International institutions are also listed along the circumference, where diagrams sort the number of incoming students by year. The year of is emphasized in red, marking the start of the Science without Borders program. In the Brazilian territory, each spike represents the number of registered and active architects in Brazilian cities, according to the information provided by the Brazilian National Council of Architecture and Urbanism CAU.

The corresponding diagram shows the ratio between male and female professionals in the cities registering the largest number of professionals. See Simmel, The Stranger.

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Available at: www. Accessed on: April 10, The contact with outstanding Brazilian architects in other geographies was made through recommendations by the network of collaborators of Walls of Air. The selection focused on professionals who approach the practice on multiple fronts and in a wide range of contexts: architects who are active in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia, in different fields—photography, research, curatorship, art and design.

On the contrary, practically all the architects talked about enrichment and opportunities for personal and professional growth. For them, living and working in a place that was different from their origin also allowed them to gain a new scope in their reflections and feelings in relation to Brazil.

Combining this with the knowledge related to their architectural training and their experiences in Brazil, the statements can provide us with insights regarding our role and goals as professionals.

With a Brazilian essence that could never be set aside, each one of these collaborators briefly alludes to the significance their Brazilian background has for them. While they are responsible for bringing small pieces of the country abroad, they are also pushed to go beyond the Brazilian specificities. By broadening their horizons, they help lead ours to new corners of the planet. Besides our birthplace, there are places we adopt as our own. As an architect, this is an extraordinary experience.

It has allowed me to concretely understand that each society creates its own spaces, the raw material of the architecture and the city. More than another view of Brazil, this humanistic perspective has confirmed values and practices that I learned in my academic background and in my initial professional experiences, which I continued to develop and expand in other countries. In the last two decades, my professional practice has been concentrated on education, research and artistic practice.

I teach design and history of architecture and the city, I write, design and organize exhibitions. The many years that I have dedicated to researching and writing about the life and work of architect Lina Bo Bardi have been my self-education on Brazil and on the broad significance of architecture as a cultural representation and a place for the practice of daily life.

Firstly, I moved to London in order to study with some of the architects I used to read about in my university library in Belo Horizonte. Secondly, to my total surprise, I realized that I myself could have an international career in the context of practice, curating and teaching. My experience abroad enabled me to pursue the architecture I wanted to practice—experimental and innovative—while being independent minded.

My international experience enabled me to value both what Brazilian architecture is, and what it could be. In other words, my main lesson from living abroad is perhaps to invest in and investigate the near future despite the acute social problems in my home country. To dream about alternatives is not a luxury, but a necessity if we want to change our reality today.

For many years I have been inspired both by Brazilian culture and its environmental challenges. In our current work we have been inspired by siteian culture. One of our ongoing commissions is to design a Forest Research Centre in Bangladesh where we utilize lessons from the siteian environmental context translated into the global-warming-affected coast of our project site.

If innovation is also an archaeological exercise, I am very happy to borrow a couple of dreams from the Rio Negro. Why not? Brazilian modernists, as I was part of the Place onto a plate the icons of modern family of Olavo Redig de Campos, who architecture, add a model of the city exposed me to architecture. It was I decided to favelas, I came to work with inequality move to Japan, which was experiencing in the city, using my knowledge to help its economic bubble.

Living in Tokyo, those who have been excluded from I worked for some years in an architecture public policies, to encourage access to a firm. But I liked working with art and dignified dwelling, to quality architecture, slowly left architecture to be an artist.

The years went international career that brought me to by, and to widen my horizons I moved to more than thirty countries. In those years, New York.

The distance from my country of with a certain frequency and continuity origin allowed me to reflect on my cultural in countries such as Bulgaria, Moldavia, background and to think about how my Cuba, Bolivia and Brazil, as an international worldview was constructed.

I do not regret consultant. My identity and cultural base having left my country as a young man. The foundations constructed in my interaction with the excluded population in Brazilian cities became a comparative advantage in my professional activity in other countries, helping me to contextualize and deepen my search for adequate solutions, in a constant exchange and learning process.

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After a period of four years in London, where I was a postgraduate student at the Architectural Association School of Architecture and worked as an architect in large firms, in I took up residence in Hong Kong, which I consider the capital of Asia. It is here that large projects and creativity have been applied to important issues in the big contemporary cities, such as infrastructure, urban mobility and accessibility. A combination of economic power, large investments in infrastructure, demographic pressure and high density have created an environment conducive to urban development and to the appetite for carrying out large projects.

These are the so-called transport oriented mixed-use developments TODs. Mauro Resnitzky, Hong Kong, China Planned and designed with creativity, adapted to the urban context and pertinent to the real estate situation, these developments become true landmarks in the city, attractive destinations for work, leisure, housing and—why not?

I have been active in our firm, Girimun Architects, since , designing projects that promote a blending of scales, requiring solutions of urbanism, urban design, architecture, interiors, graphic design, signage and branding, all in a single design and at the same time. In recent years, we have been seeking to collaborate on projects in Brazil, understanding that our experience is extremely relevant in the search for ideas and solutions for the large Brazilian urban centers.

The few days I spent in Holland were impactful: a great period of the SuperDutch! The freedom and experimentation that guide a large part of the contemporary Dutch production have always been extremely attractive, motivating young foreign architects to explore this thought open to countless design options.

For their part, the architectural culture of Brazil and Portugal made us think in a linear way, seeking the best solution, when not the only one! The big dilemma. The vision of architecture throughout these years of practice — and dilemmas along the way — working in Europe, Asia and America have made me perceive the foundation of my first years of work in Brazil and the years well spent studying in Rio de Janeiro and Porto. Studying the architecture that garnered Brazil worldwide recognition in this field, and understanding, being critical and appreciative of its contemporary production, are the legacy that I have and which allow me to work as a professional in a world where architecture is facing questions of globalization and identity.

For the last 13 years I have been working as an architect at the Mecanoo architectural firm, in the small city of Delft, located 15 minutes from Rotterdam, where I live. The very idea of country changes in the memory of your existence in a given place at a given moment. The change in location leads to a distancing in your perspective and allows you to become immersed in new social and professional dynamics. The distancing allowed me, first of all, to observe the value of the social relations in Brazil, characterized by empathy and generosity, but also by inequality and informality — almost like a metaphor for the Brazilian geography and landscape: generous, vast, diverse and contrastive.

As I faced new professional paradigms, I could observe the value of the technique and aesthetics in the Brazilian context, characterized by lightness and the generosity of simple but rigorous lines that integrate function and form with economy and expression.

The transposition from one country to another takes place through a process of synthesis and adaption. This synthesis, in my professional experience, is a result of these observations about Brazil: a constant search for meaning and for human and social value in the practice of teaching and research in architecture and urbanism. This transforms into a search for lightness and precision, for balance and the rigor of the line and for an understanding of the landscape and its dynamics as a natural and a cultural place.

In short, the search for the essential and for the fundamental act of the design. He holds a degree in mechanical and industrial engineering from Instituto Militar de Engenharia and a PhD in economics from the University of Chicago. He is the founder and chairman of Insper. The barrier is the result of various things, starting with people, as a result of the low quality of elementary education. Unfortunately, perhaps it was too ambitious and this held the program back.

However, it was a good idea and should be continued on a more realistic scale. Side effects What do these educational intersections with other countries mean for the Brazilian economy and culture? In Brazil, our economy is still very closed off. Not only in terms of ideas and exchange, but also international trade. There is a lot to do, primarily in university education. Our education is built around silos. People study certain things with little interconnection between the various disciplines and schools.

In architecture, more than other disciplines, this is absolutely essential. Architecture cannot focus only on form. It must consider a series of other things: physical and economic feasibility, as well as the cultural, artistic and aesthetic interaction of the project with the rest of the community. This has to form the basis of our schools of architecture, engineering, economics and so on.

At Insper, we started with a clean slate. There are no departments, instead we have programs—in engineering, economics and business administration. Engineers are involved with projects from the beginning, and theory is taught along the way; it is Project-Based Learning. Engineers must also worry about not only physical feasibility, but also economic feasibility, and whether the project is of interest and desirable for society and the environment.

Behavior and micro-politics How is knowledge accumulated individually during exchange abroad and disseminated to others? How does individual experience influence the behavior of the community?

Evidence shows that interaction between qualified individuals is fundamental for the dissemination of ideas, knowledge and productive activities. Giant anteaters are commonly spotted in the cerrado. These solitary animals have a long tail and tongue, a bristly brown coat, and five short, sharp claws on both their paws. These animals are sometimes hunted for their meat. Hundreds of birds can be heard screeching overhead or fishing in the waters while caimans bask along the river banks.

The best time to visit is the dry season. Its fibers are extensively used to make brooms, thatch, mats, and cord. It kills its prey, sometimes many times its size, by constriction as well as drowning. Woolly spider monkeys are the largest primates in the Americas. This endangered species eats mainly fruits, leaves, and seeds. When their numbers began depleting due to the severity of slavery, the Portuguese started shipping slaves from Africa in the midth century.

Many of these slaves assimilated with the white and local population. After over years of immigration and integration, modern Brazil is a true ethnic mosaic, where diverse elements combine to create a vibrant nation renowned for its spirit.

Indigenous Brazilians also include the Ticuna community, who are a large group with their own language and written literature. Some indigenous groups see pp—3 continue to live as they had done before the arrival of the Portuguese, particularly in the forested interior. European immigrants see pp—9 started moving to Brazil after slavery ended in They tended to concentrate in various parts of Southern Brazil, where people of Azorean, German, Italian, Slav, Dutch, Austrian, and other descents still thrive.

The Portuguese, the dominant ethnic group in Brazil today, introduced Catholicism see p34 , and have given the country its official language. Prominent in music, sports, and the arts, famous Brazilian mulattoes include pop music icon Gilberto Gil see p32 and professional soccer player Ronaldo.

Baianas play an integral role in keeping alive the Afro-Brazilian traditions that came to Brazil, especially in the slave ships from Angola and Nigeria.

Japanese Brazilians see p are mainly descended from immigrants who came to Brazil around as laborers.

There are numerous Buddhist and Shinto shrines around Brazil, and the Japanese influence can be seen in the art scene and in the popularity of its cuisine. Paulistanos see their city as the economic force driving Brazil, while Rio is considered to be a playground for Cariocas frolicking on Copacabana beach, Rio City Carnaval see pp64—5.

The self-image of Cariocas is that they have better music and more beautiful people. The Paulistanos, on the other hand, take pride in their diligent nature and the distinct cadence of their spoken Portuguese. The key difference really revolves around beach life.

As these structures were made from perishable materials, little is known of them beyond early European descriptions. Colonial churches and other buildings were in spectacular form in the 18th century during the Baroque era. Today, Brazil is dominated by highrises punctuated by the occasional striking building by a contemporary architect such as Ruy Ohtake.

These large cities no longer exist. Today, traditional indigenous villages are smaller and focus on a large communal maloca. Less traditional ones are made up of wattle-and-daub houses. The style found its zenith in Salvador and Recife, and in the sculptures of Aleijadinho see p in Minas Gerais. The interior of the church is covered with almost lb kg of gold. Silver, gold leaf, and solid gold are coupled with stunning azulejos, or blue Portuguese tile work.

These quickly became the norm for buildings of state in the rest of the empire. Its second tower was left incomplete in order to avoid a tax on churches. Like the styles that preceded it, it was strongly influenced by European trends, particularly French and English. Eclecticism is characterized by a combination of forms, motifs, and styles from Neo-Classical and Baroque through to Manueline, a style that fuses together in one building Portuguese Late Gothic with ornamentation in portals, windows, and arcades, along with Oriental elements.

Brazilian architects at first adhered to the strict precepts these Europeans laid down, but from the s, architects such as Oscar Niemeyer developed a unique form of Brazilian Modernism, influenced by indigenous design and employing curved forms.

Cities are seas of identical tower-block flats broken by snaking highways. Glass set windows Hotel Unique is a combination of bravado and functionalism. Built by Ruy Ohtake, a leading figure in contemporary Brazilian architecture, the inverted arc has 3-ft 1-m wide windows overlooking a stunning garden.

The open-air rooftop bar has a spectacular view over the city. Secular art in Brazil ceased to derive from Europe only in the s after the emergence of the antropofagismo movement, which appropriated western themes into specifically Brazilian contexts. The explosion of Modernism in the early 20th century has left Brazil with a diverse literary output which remains largely unexplored by English-language publishers.

Father Agostinho de Piedade — and 18th-century Francisco Xavier Brito, whose works can be found in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, introduced the Baroque style, developing it as uniquely Brazilian.

The 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brazil

The latter also preserves the finest paintings by another subtle satiricist, Mestre Manuel da Costa Athayde — Other artists pursued Modernism according to their own ideas. Emiliano Di Cavalcanti — turned to the masses for inspiration, producing impressionistic, erotic icons of black Brazilian women. The sculptor Victor Brecheret — offered a Brazilian take on Art Deco, while Alfredo Volpi — brought Brazilian colors to abstract impressionism.

Artist Siron Franco b.

They introduced revolutionary French ideas to Brazil and wrote lyric and epic poems on Brazilian themes, but in a lofty European classical style. Starting out with traditional sentimental romances, he later became celebrated for his darkly humorous novels with their subversive social criticism.

Dom Casmurro is considered by some to be the greatest Latin American novel of the 19th century. In Triste fim de Policarpo Quaresma, the black novelist, Afonso Lima Barreto — , was openly critical of the corruption that characterized the Republic.

Oswald — , together with his wife Tarsila do Amaral, formulated the ideas behind the antropofagismo cultural movement. The 20th century also produced major popular novelists, including Jorge Amado — and Clarice Lispector — He has since been followed by songwriter Chico Buarque b.

Today, Brazilian fiction accounts for about half the literary output of Latin America. Writers include Paulo Coelho b. The music mirrors the influences of both the native and immigrant population. The rhythms of Africa are as important to the overall sound as the harmonies and melodies that were introduced from Europe.

Brazil is not about one musical style, but a varied selection. Samba comes in many forms, and most of these have a link to dance. Zeca Pagodinho, who emerged in the late s, is one of the most popular and bestselling artists of a new wave of samba stars. Gilberto Gil went Clara Nunes was one of the most prolific and popular samba singers of all time.

Her career was tragically cut short when she died at the age of 39 in He remains an active musical force. Caetano Veloso helped launch the tropicalismo movement in , and is considered a Brazilian musical treasure. Chico Buarque is a composer, lyricist, performer, and author. He is as popular today as when he first performed in Many tropicalismo artists, led by Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil, were driven by political activism following the coup of Her explosive live performances have won her a growing international following.

Break beat, drum and bass, electronica, house, lounge, speed, garage, techno, trance, and trip hop all have a place in the Paulista scene. With a huge range of nightclubs and bars to choose from, Paulistanos can enjoy all genres of music through the week and all year round. Bahia, one of the powerhouses of regional Brazilian music, has its own versions of jazz, reggae, hip-hop, soul, funk, rock and roll, heavy metal, electronica, and the popular homegrown country and western style known as sertanejo.

The practice of black magic is not uncommon, even in business and politics, and soothsayers and witches hand out leaflets on the streets. Only atheists are largely absent in Brazil; those who believe in nothing are looked upon with a mixture of incredulity and pity. Brazil has the largest number of Catholics of any country in the world. From its earliest days, the church in Brazil, as in most colonies, was divided into an establishment linked to the Crown and later to the Emperor and the Republican State and factions who campaigned on behalf of the oppressed.

One of these factions was the Jesuits who, while treating the indigenous people as objects of proselytization, nonetheless fought doggedly against their enslavement and murder by the bandeirantes and the settlers on the site.

The Jesuits began to be seen as a threat to the Portuguese Crown and were expelled from the colonies in They campaigned against the rich establishment and the dictatorships. Many of the priests involved were murdered or tortured and the movement was suppressed by the Leonardo Boff presiding over a service established Church.

The church establishment in Brazil did little to criticize the treatment of the indigenous people, or the slaves from Africa who replaced them. Churches were divided along strict social and racial lines. Churches in Brazil today are largely apolitical and gregarious, and are increasingly influenced by Evangelical preaching and musical styles.

The movement has been widely criticized. Nonetheless, Evangelicalism is very popular in Brazil, so much so that populist politicians often campaign as Evangelicals in elections.

Consequently, there are large communities of Nichiren Daishonin Mahayana Buddhists in the country. The method for achieving this is through strong ethical practice and the chanting of the Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo mantra.

The Brazilian government legalized their practice in the midth century, but followers of these religions have been persecuted by the Church.

These can all be loosely banded together as shamanism, which is not so much a religion as a distinct way of understanding reality.

Rather than believing that we are made of material, indigenous peoples believe that material, time, and space itself are mere manifestations of a far deeper reality. Spiritual life is organized in harmony with this inner state by a shaman. A number of popular religious movements have grown up in Brazil from indigenous roots. The most widely practiced is Santo Daime, which makes use of siteian psychotropic plants to achieve a state of super-consciousness. The community is private, conservative, and is generally more concerned with preserving links to Lebanese and Syrian culture and the Arabic language than it is with proselytizing.Brazil spends a reasonable amount on education compared to other countries.

This map was developed and designed in collaboration with Mapping-lab www. Which walls are breached once immigration movements become part of a discipline often closed and self-referential? With a Brazilian essence that could never be set aside, each one of these collaborators briefly alludes to the significance their Brazilian background has for them. Abidjan 4 1 1—75 Google Scholar Ikeda, Y.