Jeremy Harmer, Series Editor How to Teach English is a practical guide for teachers who are at an early stage in their careers and for those studying for the. nvilnephtalyca.gq - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Teaching ftll. Jeremy Harmer. PEARSON. Longman. FOURTH EDITION .. The first edition of The Practice of English Language Teaching was informed by the input A good book on teaching for CLIL is S Deller and C Price ().
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THE PRACTICE OF. ENGLISH. LANGUAGE. TEACHING. Jeremy Harmer. Longman nvilnephtalyca.gq THIRD EDITION. COMPLETELY REVISED AND. Reviews. How to Teach English (Second Edition). J. Harmer. Pearson Education Limited , pp., £ ISBN 1 5. Teaching Skills. nvilnephtalyca.gq's College (Autonomous),Palayamkottai · Complete ielts bands student book. Min Chu · English · Español.
In the end that is entirely my responsibility. But I hope thatthey and you will enjoy how it has all turned out. Jeremy HarmerCambridge, UK IntroductionA friend of mine who is an orchestral conductor was asking me early in our acquaintance about what I did for a living. But his question was a good one.
Surely we know how to teach languages? After all,people have been doing it successfully for two thousand years or more, and some aspectsof teaching in the past have probably not changed that much. But other things have, andcontinue to change. Which is I suppose why every time I re-examine past assumptionsabout teaching, I find myself questioning and reinterpreting things I thought were fixed.
And of course, I am not alone in this. Language teaching, perhaps more than many other activities, reflects the times it takesplace in. Language is about communication, after all, and perhaps that is why philosophiesand techniques for learning languages seem to develop and change in tune with the societieswhich give rise to them.
Teaching and learning are very hum an activities; they are socialjust as much as they are in our case linguistic. The last decades have seen whatfeels like unprecedented technological change.
The Internet has seen to that and othereducational technology has not lagged behind. New software and hardware has appearedwhich we could hardly have imagined possible when the first edition of How to Teach Englishwas published as recently as There are so many wonderfulpossibilities open to us now not least the ability to write and edit books electronically!
But we need tobe careful, too. Readers of the first version of How to Teach English will notice a change of chapterorder and see a new chapter to introduce the subject of testing. There are new materialsand techniques on offer - and quite a few old ones too because they have stood the test oftime. And so - 1want to say to my conductor friend - thank heavens for new developments,new technologies and new interpretations. They keep us alive; they make us better teachers.
Some students, of course, only learn Englishbecause it is on the curriculum at prim ary or secondary level, but for others, studying thelanguage reflects some kind of a choice. Many people learn English because they have moved into a target-language communityand they need to be able to operate successfully within that community.
A target-languagecom m unity is a place where English is the national language - e. Britain, Canada, NewZealand, etc - or where it is one of the main languages of culture and commerce - e. India, Pakistan, Nigeria. Such students of ESP sometimes also called English for Special Purposes may need to learn legal language, orthe language of tourism, banking or nursing, for example.
An extremely popular strandof ESP is the teaching of business English, where students learn about how to operate inEnglish in the business world.
Many students need English for Academic Purposes EAP in order to study at an English-speaking university or college, or because they need toaccess English-language academic texts.
Many people learn English because they think it will be useful in some way forinternational communication and travel. Such students of general English often do nothave a particular reason for going to English classes, but simply wish to learn to speak andread and write the language effectively for wherever and whenever this might be useful forthem.
The purposes students have for learning will have an effect on what it is they wantand need to learn - and as a result will influence what they are taught. Business Englishstudents, for example, will want to spend a lot of time concentrating on the languageneeded for specific business transactions and situations.
Book the practice of english language teaching by jeremy harmer pdf
Students living in a target-languagecom m unity will need to use English to achieve their immediate practical and social needs. A group of nurses will want to study the kind of English that they are likely to have to usewhile they nurse. Students of general English including those studying the language aspart of their prim ary and secondary education will not have such specific needs, of course,and so their lessons and the materials which the teachers use will almost certainly look 11 Chapter 1different from those for students with more clearly identifiable needs.
Different contexts for learningEnglish is learnt and taught in many different contexts, and in many different classarrangements. Such differences will have a considerable effect on how and what it is weteach. It has been suggested thatstudents of EFL English as a Foreign Language tend to be learning so that they can useEnglish when travelling or to communicate with other people, from whatever country, whoalso speak English.
ESL English as a Second Language students, on the other hand, areusually living in the target-language community. The latter may need to learn the particularlanguage variety of that community Scottish English, southern English from England,Australian English, Texan English, etc rather than a more general language variety seepage They may need to combine their learning of English with knowledge of how to dothings in the target-language comm unity - such as going to a bank, renting a flat, accessinghealth services, etc.
The English they learn, therefore, may differ from that studied by EFLstudents, whose needs are not so specific to a particular time and place. However, this distinction begins to look less satisfactory when we look at the waypeople use English in a global context.
Nevertheless, the context in which the language is learnt whatcomm unity they wish to be part of is still of considerable relevance to the kind of Englishthey will want and need to study, and the skills they will need to acquire.
Schools and language schoolsA huge num ber of students learn English in primary and secondary classrooms aroundthe world. They have not chosen to do this themselves, but learn because English is onthe curriculum.
Depending on the country, area and the school itself, they may have theadvantage of the latest classroom equipment and information technology IT , or theymay, as in many parts of the world, be sitting in rows in classrooms with a blackboard andno other teaching aid. Private language schools, on the other hand, tend to be better equipped than somegovernment schools though this is not always the case. They will frequently have smallerclass sizes, and, crucially, the students in them may well have chosen to come and study.
This will affect their motivation see page 20 at the beginning of the process. Large classes and one-to-one teachingSome students prefer to have a private session with just them on their own and a teacher, commonly referred to as one-to-one teaching.
At the other end of the scale, English Learnersis taught in some environments to groups of over students at a time. Governmentschool classes in many countries have up to 30 students, whereas a typical num ber in aprivate language school lies somewhere between 8 and 15 learners.
Clearly the size of the class will affect how we teach. Pairwork and groupwork seepages are often used in large classes to give students more chances for interactionthan they would otherwise get with whole-class teaching. In large classes the teacher may well teach from the front more often than with smallergroups, where mingling with students when they work in pairs, etc may be much morefeasible and time-efficient.
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In-school and in-companyThe vast majority of language classes in the world take place in educational institutionssuch as the schools and language schools we have already mentioned, and, in addition,colleges and universities. In such situations teachers have to be aware of school policy andconform to syllabus and curriculum decisions taken by whoever is responsible for theacademic running of the school.
There may well be learning outcomes which students areexpected to achieve, and students may be preparing for specific exams. A num ber of companies also offer language classes and expect teachers to go to thecompany office or factory to teach.
But more importantly, theteacher may need to negotiate the class content, not only with the students, but also withwhoever is paying for the tuition. Real and virtual learning environmentsLanguage learning has traditionally involved a teacher and a student or students beingin the same physical space.
However, the development of high-speed Internet access hashelped to bring about new virtual learning environments in which students can learneven when they are literally thousands of miles away and in a different time zone from ateacher or other classmates. Some of the issues for both real and virtual learning environments are the same. Students still need to be motivated see page 20 and we still need to offer help in that area.
As a result, the best virtual learning sites have online tutors who interact with their studentsvia email or online chat forums. But despite these interpersonal elements, some students find itmore difficult to sustain their motivation online than they might as part of a real learninggroup. Virtual learning is significantly different from face-to-face classes for a num ber ofreasons.
Firstly, students can attend lessons when they want for the most part thoughreal-time chat forums have to be scheduled , rather than when lessons are timetabled as inschools. Secondly, it no longer matters where the students are since they can log on fromany location in the world. Online learning may have these advantages, but some of the benefits of real learningenvironments are less easy to replicate electronically. These include the physical reality of 13 Chapter 1having teachers and students around you when you are learning so that you can see theirexpressions and get messages from their gestures, tone of voice, etc.
Many learners willprefer the presence of real people to the sight of a screen, with or without pictures andvideo. Some communication software such as MSN Messenger and Skype allows usersto see each other on the screen as they communicate, but this is still less attractive - andconsiderably more jerky - than being face to face with the teacher and fellow students. O f course, whereas in real learning environments learning can take place with very littletechnical equipment, virtual learning relies on good hardware and software, and effectiveand reliable Internet connections.
Although this book will certainly look at uses of the Internet and other IT applications,it is not primarily concerned with the virtual learning environment, preferring instead toconcentrate on situations where the teachers and learners are usually in the same place, atthe same time. Learner differencesWhatever their reasons for learning or the circumstances in which it takes place , it issometimes tempting to see all students as being more or less the same.
Yet there are markeddifferences, not only in terms of their age and level, but also in terms of different individualabilities, knowledge and preferences. We will examine some of these differences in thissection. AgeLearners are often described as children, young learners, adolescents, young adults oradults.
W ithin education, the term children is generally used for learners between the agesof about 2 to about Students are generally described as young learners between the agesof about 5 to 9, and very young learners are usually between 2 and 5.
At what ages it is safe tocall students adolescents is often uncertain, since the onset of adolescence is bound up withphysical and emotional changes rather than chronological age.
However, this term tendsto refer to students from the ages of about 12 to 17, whereas young adults are generallythought to be between 16 and We will look at three ages: children, adolescents and adults. However, we need toremember that there is a large degree of individual variation in the ways in which differentchildren develop.
The descriptions that follow, therefore, m ust be seen as generalisationsonly. We are conscious, too, that the abstraction of, say, gram m ar rules,will be less effective the younger the students are.
But we also know that children respondwell to individual attention from the teacher and are usually pleased to receive teacherapproval. Children usually respond well to activities that focus on their lives and experiences. Theyforget languages, it seems, with equal ease. This language-acquiring ability is steadilycompromised as they head towards adolescence.
AdolescentsOne of the greatest differences between adolescents and young children is that these olderchildren have developed a greater capacity for abstract thought as they have grown up. Inother words, their intellects are kicking in, and they can talk about more abstract ideas,teasing out concepts in a way that younger children find difficult.
Many adolescents readilyunderstand and accept the need for learning of a more intellectual type. At their best, adolescent students have a great capacity for learning, enormous potentialfor creative thought and a passionate commitment to things which interest them. Adolescence is bound up with a search for identity and a need for self-esteem.
AdultsOlder learners often but not always have a wider range of life experiences to draw on, bothas individuals and as learners, than younger students do. They are often more disciplinedthan adolescents and apply themselves to the task of learning even when it seems fairlyboring.
They often have a clear understanding of why they are learning things, and cansustain their motivation see pages by perceiving and holding on to long-termlearning goals. On the other hand, adult learners come with a lot of previous learning experiencewhich may hamper their progress. Students who have had negative learning experiencesin the past may be nervous of new learning.
Students used to failure may be consciouslyor subconsciously prepared for more failure. Older students who have got out of the habitof study may find classrooms daunting places. They may also have strong views aboutteaching methods from their past, which the teacher will have to take into account.
Because students at different ages have different characteristics, the way we teach themwill differ too. With younger children we may offer a greater variety of games, songs andpuzzles than we would do with older students.
We may want to ensure that there are morefrequent changes of activity.
O ur choice of topics will reflect theiremerging interests. One of the recurring nightmares for teachers of adolescents, in particular, is that wemight lose control of the class.
Yet teenagers arenot the only students who sometimes exhibit problem behaviour that is behaviour whichcauses a problem for the teacher, the student him- or herself, and, perhaps, the others inthe classroom. Younger children can, of course, cause difficulties for the teacher and class,too.
Adults can also be disruptive and exhausting. They may arrive late for class or fail to doany homework. And, whatever the causes of this behaviour, a problem is created. Teachers need to work both to prevent problem behaviour, and to respond to itappropriately if it occurs.
Learning stylesAll students respond to various stimuli such as pictures, sounds, music, movement, etc ,but for most of them and us some things stimulate them into learning more than otherthings do.
The Neuro-Linguistic Programming model often called NLP takes accountof this by showing how some students are especially influenced by visual stimuli and aretherefore likely to remember things better if they see them. Some students, on the otherhand, are especially affected by auditory input and, as a result, respond very well to thingsthey hear.
Kinaesthetic activity is especially effective for other learners, who seem to learnbest when they are involved in some kind of physical activity, such as moving around, orrearranging things with their hands.
The point is that although we all respond to all ofthese stimuli, for most of us, one or other of them visual, auditory, kinaesthetic is morepowerful than the others in enabling us to learn and remember what we have learnt. Another way of looking at student variation is offered by the concept of MultipleIntelligences, first articulated by Howard Gardner.
In his formulation and that of peoplewho have followed and expanded his theories , we all have a num ber of different intelligences mathematical, musical, interpersonal, spatial, emotional, etc.
W hat these two theories tell us from their different standpoints is that in any oneclassroom we have a num ber of different individuals with different learning styles andpreferences. Experienced teachers know this and try to ensure that different learning stylesare catered for as often as is possible. In effect, this means offering a wide range of differentactivity types in our lessons in order to cater for individual differences and needs. Samudra N Chandrasiri. Luziane Calazans.
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You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Cancel Save. Nguyen Van Troi Primary School in District 4 is one of the schools to carry out this program for its first graders and above. The primary school has five grades.
Each grade has students in one to two classrooms learning English under the program. In … [Read more The programme began in the academic year. In the programme, students are taught English with native teachers. Their capacity of using English is assessed by … [Read more You are here:They may need to combine their learning of English with knowledge of how to dothings in the target-language comm unity - such as going to a bank, renting a flat, accessinghealth services, etc.
My first reading many years ago, I gave it 3. Respect is vital, too, when we deal with any kind of problem behaviour. They feel, to me, like real collaborators in this enterprise and special thanks to Adriana, Gabriel and Jeremy for their input on planning.
Rapport is established in part when students become aware of ourprofessionalism see above , but it also occurs as a result of the way we listen to and treatthe students in our classrooms.
And this was just one of many writings before and since which have tried to pin down what makes a good language lesson or an effective method.