1 Bodies that Matter 2 The Lesbian Phallus and the Morphological Imaginary 3 Phantasmatic Identification and the Assumption of Sex 4 Gender Is. File:Butler Judith Bodies That Matter On the Discursive Limits of Sex pdf . pdf (file size: MB, MIME type: application/pdf). Bodies that Matter is a feminist philosophical attempt to (re)think „the body‟. Judith Butler, the writer of Bodies that Matter also uses this medium to reply the criticism of her previous book titled Gender Trouble. Butler also revealed that materiality has a certain.
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In Bodies That Matter, Judith Butler further develops her distinctive theory of gender by examining the workings of power at the most "material" dimensions of sex. Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of “sex” / Judith Butler. p. cm.—( Routledge classics). First published by Routledge. Includes bibliographical . pdf. Bodies / Matter: Narratives of Corporeality (Martor 20/). Pages .. New iconographies of matter female body and the mysterious substance allowed .
A phenomenological perspective, therefore, assumes that experiences are always embodied and relational.
Individuals first meet each other through their bodies e. Specifically, experiences are formed through the senses after which the perceiver translates this into conscious thought.
Bodies are often approached as theoretical or abstract entities, not as sensuous and sensing phenomena.
Scholars from within and outside of sport have argued the need for conducting such research on embodiment using phenomenology e. Ladkin , for example, found that the behavior and thinking of leaders and their followers was shaped by how they experienced leadership through their bodies. The use of a phenomenological approach can include a variety of methods as well. Lambert , for example, used autoethnographic poetic accounts to analyze the experience of being at the Sydney Gay Games.
Phenomenological approaches could also be used to explore body work in sport organizations. It could illuminate how leadership is embodied in this masculine, racialized, and ableist context and possibly explore differences and similarities in the embodiment and perception of leaders pertaining to their gender, ability, and race and how they are perceived.
Bodies Matter: Professional Bodies and Embodiment in Institutional Sport Contexts
With its focus on the senses, a phenomenological approach can unpack how leadership relations are embodied and experienced by both leaders and others. This approach thus specifically analyses the bodily aspects of leadership and management relations such as feelings and sensations that these relations may involve. The use of new materialist perspectives can add to this focus on fleshy bodies and sensations. For example, one might consider how medals, cups, or other prizes on display in the buildings housing sport organizations may produce affect within assemblages related to sport for professionals working in sport.
Similarly, physical phenomena such as muscles, hair, sweat, pain, or supportive technology may produce affect as part of the assemblage related to sport. How these material aspects can produce affect and affective connections cannot be understood without paying attention to markers such as gender, ability, race, and social class. Deconstruction and Transgression: Queering Bodies Beyond the sensations and feelings that can be unpacked through a phenomenological approach, a significant body of research has focused on the intersection of gender and sexuality as a very important determinant in shaping the construction of sport.
Compared with this body of research, the embodiment of heteronormativity circulating among those working in sport organizations has been underresearched. Queer theorists predominantly interrogate the discourse of heteronormativity, that is, they question the assumption that the behavior and thinking of male bodies and female bodies complement each other.
A queer approach therefore focuses on deconstructing and disrupting what are common sense binaries and identities in different contexts e.
This deconstruction can not only include gender and sexuality but also be used to interrogate other categories, for example, pertaining to race, ethnicity, dis ability and body size and shape e. Moreover, this critical perspective assumes that often used bodily categories, such as those pertaining to gender, ability, and sexuality, are not separate static categories but blurred, fluid, and fragmented. This perspective is used to explore how these notions are challenged and transgressed in organizational life.
An exception is the work of Kauer She used queer theory to examine how lesbian coaches challenged and disrupted heteronormative boundaries and simultaneously strengthened dominant norms and practices in sport. She did not, however, investigate how these disruptions informed the organizational cultures where these coaches were employed or the practices of embodiment of those working there.
Sport is a context where the use of queer theory could be useful because both heteronormativity and other practices of inequalities play a dominant role for both males and females, albeit in different ways for examples of queering of binary structures in sport, see Tamburrini, ; Torsson, , and of queering intersections between disability, sexuality, and sport, see Sparkes et al. The queering of bodies and embodiment of professionals working in sport has rarely been addressed in the literature.
This may mean that researchers need to draw on the critical management literature where various scholars have attempted to queer management and organizations see, for example, Bendl et al. Such ruptures are needed in sport organizations as well if social change is to occur in theory and practice and in diminishing social inequalities.
Concluding Thoughts The foregoing suggests that a research focus on bodies and embodiment of professionals working in sport is significantly underresearched. This lack of scholarly attention might help explain why diversity has thus far not been realized at the managerial level in sport organizations. The description of possible approaches and avenues for research is not meant to be exhaustive or confined to diversity, but we use it to argue that scholars need to pay attention to bodies, body work, and embodiment of professionals in sport organizations.
We have presented various directions such research might take. Her work explores how gender, dis ability, race, social class and health are constructed and performed in sport and sport organizations. She focusses specifically on the role of bodies and visibile diversity. Inge Claringbould is associate professor at Utrecht School of Governance.
Her research focusses on gender in sport management, violence and diversity in youth sport. Annelies Knoppers is full professor at Utrecht School of Goverance.
Notes 1. This differs from a Foucauldian approach that assumes that experiences and sense making occur simultaneously. References Acker J. Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Sporting embodiment: Sports studies and the continuing promise of phenomenology. Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, 1, Updating the outcome gay athletes, straight teams, and coming out in educationally based sport teams.
Diversity management discourse meets queer theory.
Gender in Management: An International Journal, 23, Resisting theoretical disembodiment. In Bettez S. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers. Sport, Education and Society. Advance online publication. The forms of capital. In Richardson J. New York, NY: Greenwood.
The logic of practice. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Exploring embodiment: Women, biology and work. In Hassard J, Holliday R. London, England: Sage. Underrepresentation of women in sport leadership: A review of research. Sport Management Review, , Sports coaching research: Context, consequences, and consciousness. London, England: Routledge. Sociology of Sport Journal, 20 4 , Journal of Lesbian Studies, 13, Leisure Studies, 30, Sport, Education and Society, 19, Journal of Communication, 78, Doing and undoing gender in sport governance.
Sex Roles, 58, Paradoxical practices of gender in sport-related organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 26, Assessing the sociology of sport: On cultural sensibilities and the great sport myth. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50, Entry and exit as embodied career choice in professional sport.
In fact, since Mitford, just another consumer choice while eschewing funerary practices in the United States have actu- any deeper environmental goals beyond the aim ally changed very little. Since otherwise, nature is that common ground. It is the then, about one third of the states have witnessed space within which a shared sense of meaning of the arrival of at least one natural burial ground. As a result, green burial grounds are United States.
Certainly, what we and liners. Green is important for prefiguring a more sustainable burial respects decay, as microbes and insects des- way of living with the earth. But such choice also cend to feed on the dead. In this way, green burial gives individuals the possibility of feeling good functions to regard humans, ultimately, as food about their choices, while, at the same time, gov- and nourishment for other creatures. If scent is ernment policies and corporate practices continue what drove the living to dispense with the dead, it to wreak havoc on the natural world.
As already men- nothing will be spared, not even death. In other words, grasp for eternal youth through transcendence, this will require a movement. This con- Indeed, animistic and indigenous thinking sumer movement focus has made the disposition could be sources of insight for reversing this of death a matter of choice between green burial, prohibition, as thinkers like Plumwood have as the least environmental offender, and crema- suggested.
But of nature. The reasons for this are likely multi- because human death has been all but forgotten ple, including the immediacy of addressing the by the movement, the movement is in need of a loss of habitat and species—that is, seeing to the renewed commitment to that ethical stance, one loss of life. This oversight is also, no doubt, due that extends to the entire community, human to the narrow agenda of saving an environment death included. And no movement seems to as yet open to fracture.
Recognizing the dearth of stan- taken on the matter of human death. In fact, one of the key founders of one of out a clear look to the past. As the most optimal kind in community with the dead. Blood —present , The Walking Dead —present. But it will require that cremation be seen why now? For example, in two class action lawsuits were brought after the South Florida Jewish cemetery, Menorah Gardens, under body is of no importance to nature.
And because allegations that graves had been disinterred to make room for new even under the best circumstances cremation will bodies. And not too far away in that same year, crematory operator Ray Brent Marsh was arrested for failing to cremate over three hun- always be a more polluting practice than natural dred bodies at his Georgia facility.
Here, matter s refers to a dead body that has value as matter. In that Butle- ashes—into the land community. For more on Ancient Greek and pre-modern Christian death potential to return to the land. Natural burial rites see J.
This 7. But it does 8.
A memorial reef is a human made reef made up of cremated remains that have been placed in decorative nonporous cement molds to abandon practices of backgrounding and radi- and returned the depths of the sea floor to create habitat for marine cal exclusion that prefigure the decay of the corpse life. The New School for Social Research.
How Bodies Come to Matter: An Interview with Judith Butler
Leopold, Aldo. New York: Ballantine, Works Cited Merchant, Carolyn. San Francisco: Harper, Metcalf, Peter, and Richard Huntington. Celebrations of Death: the Bordo, Susan. New York: Cambridge, Berkeley: U of California P, Bowman, Leroy.
The American Way of Death. Number 2. Westport: Greenwood, Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on tories. Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion. New York: Print. Zone, Pine, Vanderlyn R. New York: Irvington, Plumwood, Val. Feminism and the Mastery of Nature. London: Carlson, Lisa.
Hines- Routledge, Lon- Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. New York: Houghton Mifflin, The idea of identity as free and flexible and gender as a performance, not an essence, is one of the foundations of queer theory.
Imitation and Gender Insubordination [ edit ] Judith Butler explores the production of identities such as homosexual and heterosexual and the limiting nature of identity categories.
An identity category for her is a result of certain exclusions and concealments, and thus a site of regulation. Butler acknowledges, however, that categorized identities are important for political action at the present time.
Butler believes that identity forms through repetition or imitation and is not original. Imitation fosters the illusion of continuity.
Heterosexual identity, which is set up as an ideal, requires constant, compulsive repetition if it is to be safeguarded. And this repetition is not performed by a subject; this repetition is what enables a subject and constitutes the temporal condition for the subject. This iterability implies that 'performance' is not a singular 'act' or event, but a ritualized production, a ritual reiterated under and through constraint, under and through the force of prohibition and taboo, with the threat of ostracism and even death controlling and compelling the shape of the production, but not, I will insist, determining it fully in advance.
Iterability, in its endless undeterminedness as to-be-determinedness, is thus precisely that aspect of performativity that makes the production of the "natural" sexed, gendered, heterosexual subject possible, while also and at the same time opening that subject up to the possibility of its incoherence and contestation.
She argues that censorship is difficult to evaluate, and that in some cases it may be useful or even necessary, while in others it may be worse than tolerance. In this way, the state reserves for itself the power to define hate speech and, conversely, the limits of acceptable discourse. In this connection, Butler criticizes feminist legal scholar Catharine MacKinnon 's argument against pornography for its unquestioning acceptance of the state's power to censor.
In this way, Butler questions the possibility of any genuinely oppositional discourse; "If speech depends upon censorship, then the principle that one might seek to oppose is at once the formative principle of oppositional speech". Butler revisits and refines her notion of performativity and focuses on the question of undoing "restrictively normative conceptions of sexual and gendered life". Butler discusses how gender is performed without one being conscious of it, but says that it does not mean this performativity is "automatic or mechanical".
She argues that we have desires that do not originate from our personhood, but rather, from social norms. The writer also debates our notions of "human" and "less-than-human" and how these culturally imposed ideas can keep one from having a "viable life" as the biggest concerns are usually about whether a person will be accepted if his or her desires differ from normality.
She states that one may feel the need of being recognized in order to live, but that at the same time, the conditions to be recognized make life "unlivable". The writer proposes an interrogation of such conditions so that people who resist them may have more possibilities of living. Reimer was "made" female by doctors, but later in life identified as "really" male, married and became a stepfather to his wife's three children, and went on to tell his story in As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl, which he wrote with John Colapinto.
Reimer committed suicide in Butler accepts the claim that if the subject is opaque to itself the limitations of its free ethical responsibility and obligations are due to the limits of narrative, presuppositions of language and projection.
You may think that I am in fact telling a story about the prehistory of the subject, one that I have been arguing cannot be told. There are two responses to this objection.She is currently completing a manuscript that looks at the burgeoning natural burial movement in the United States and that calls for an environmental ethic of human death. Retrieved December 4, — via Haaretz. Sports and emotions.
The of sanitation Prothero. Sports coaching research: