(1) This Act may be called the Indian Partnership Act, (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force . Mercantile Law: The Indian. Partnership Act, Distinction between partnership and firm. Persons who have entered into partnership with one another are. The law relating to partnership in India which is contained in Indian Partnership Act (IX of ) is concerned partly with the rights and duties of partners.

Indian Partnership Act 1932 Pdf

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As per section 25, “Every partner is liable Jointly with all the other partners & also severally for all acts of the firm done while he is a partner". But the point to be. Indian Partnership Act, - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Analysis of Registration and Dissolution of firms under the. Partnership Act, full and updated bare act with section box to help you reach any section instantly on the same page with PDF download.

Kamlesh Vadilal Mehta, 5. Partnership not created by status. The relation of partnership arises from contract and not from status; and, in particular, the members of a Hindu undivided family carrying on a family business as such, or a Burmese Buddhist husband and wife carrying business as such, are not partners in such business.

Mode of determining existence of partnership. In determining whether a group of persons is or is not a firm, or whether a person is or is not a partner in a firm, regard shall be had to the real relation between the parties, as shown by all relevant facts taken together.

Explanation 1- The sharing of profits or of gross returns arising from property by persons holding a joint or common interest in that property does not of itself make such persons partners. Explanation 2- The receipt by a person of a share of the profits of a business, or of a payment contingent upon the earning of profits or varying with the profits earned by a business, does not of itself make him a partner with the persons carrying on the business; and in particular, the receipt of such share or payment- a by a lender of money to persons engaged or about to engage in any business, b by a servant or agent as remuneration, c by the widow or child of a deceased partner, as annuity, or d by a previous owner or part owner of the business, as consideration for the sale of the goodwill or share thereof, does not of itself make the receiver a partner with the persons carrying on the business.

Partnership at will. Particular partnership. A person may become a partner with another person in particular adventures or undertakings. General duties of partners.

Partners are bound to carry on the business of the firm to the greatest common advantage, to be just and faithful to each other, and to render true accounts and full information of all things affecting the firm to any partner or his legal representative.

Duty to indemnify for loss caused by fraud. Every partner shall indemnify the firm for any loss caused to it by his fraud in the conduct of the business of the firm. Determination of rights and duties of partners by contract between the partners.

Such contract may be varied by consent of all the partners, and such consent may be expressed or may be implied by a course of dealing. Agreements in restraints of trade- 2 Notwithstanding anything contained in Section 27 of the Indian Contract Act, , such contracts may provide that a partner shall not carry on any business other than that of the firm while he is a partner.

The conduct of the business.

Subject to contract between the partners,- a every partner has a right to take part in the conduct of the business; b every partner is bound to attend diligently to his duties in the conduct of the business; c any difference arising as to ordinary matters connected with the business may be decided by a majority of the partners, and every partner shall have the right to express his opinion, before the matter is decided, but no change may be made in the nature of the business without the consent of all the partners; and d every partner has a right to have access to and to inspect and copy any of the books of the firm.

Mutual rights and liabilities. Subject to contract between the partners,- a a partner is not entitled to receive remuneration for taking part in the conduct of the business; b the partners are entitled to share equally in the profits earned, and shall contribute equally to the losses sustained by the firm; c where a partner is entitled to interest on the capital subscribed by him such interest shall be payable only out of profits; d a partner making, for the purposes of the business, any payment or advance beyond the amount of capital he has agreed to subscribe, is entitled to interest thereon at the rate of six per cent.

The property of the firm. Subject to contract between the partners, the property of the firm includes all property and rights and interests in property originally brought into the stock of the firm, or acquired, by download or otherwise, by or for the firm, or for the purposes and in the course of business of the firm, and includes also the goodwill of the business. Unless the contrary intention appears, property and rights and interests in property acquired with money belonging to the firm are deemed to have been acquired for the firm.

Application of the property of the firm.

Subject to contract between the partners, the property of the firm shall be held and used by the partners exclusively for the purposes of the business. Personal profits earned by partners. Subject to contract between the partners,- a if a partner derives any profit for himself from any transaction of the firm, or from the use of the property or business connection of the firm or the firm name, he shall account for that profit and pay it to the firm; b if a partner carries on any business of the same nature as and competing with that of the firm, he shall account for and pay to the firm all profits made by him in that business.

Rights and duties of partners. Subject to contract between the partners- a after a change in the firm- where a change occurs in the constitution of a firm, the mutual rights and duties of the partners in the reconstituted firm remain the same as they were immediately before the change, as far as may be; b after the expiry of the term of the firm, and- where a firm constituted for a fixed term continues to carry on business after the expiry of that term, the mutual rights and duties of the partners remain the same as they were before the expiry, so far as they may be consistent with the incidents of partnership at will; and c where additional undertakings are carried out- where a firm constituted to carry out one or more adventures or undertakings carries out other adventures or undertakings, the mutual rights and duties of the partners in respect of the other adventures or undertakings are the same as those in respect of the original adventures or undertakings.

Partner to be agent of the firm. Subject to the provisions of this Act, a partner is the agent of the firm for the purpose of the business of the firm. Implied authority of partner as agent of the firm.

The partners in a firm may, by contract between the partners, extend or restrict the implied authority of any partner. Notwithstanding any such restriction, any act done by a partner on behalf of the firm which falls within his implied authority binds the firm, unless the person with whom he is dealing knows of the restriction or does not know or believe that partner to be a partner.

A partner has authority, in an emergency, to do all such acts for the purpose of protecting the firm from loss as would be done by a person of ordinary prudence, in his own case, acting under similar circumstances, and such acts bind the firm.

Mode of doing act to bind firm.

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In order to bind a firm, an act or instrument done or executed by a partner or other person on behalf of the firm shall be done or executed in the firm name, or in any other manner expressing or implying an intention to bind the firm. Effect of admissions by a partner. An admission on representation made by a partner concerning the affairs of the firm is evidence against the firm, if it is made in the ordinary course of business. Effect of notice to acting partner.

Notice to a partner, who habitually acts in the business of the firm of any matter relating to the affairs of the firm operates as notice to the firm, except in the case of a fraud on the firm committed by or with the consent of that partner.

Liability of a partner for acts of the firm. Every partner is liable, jointly with all the other partners and also severally, for all acts of the firm done while he is a partner. Liability of the firm for wrongful acts of a partner. Where, by the wrongful act or omission of a partner acting in the ordinary course of the business of a firm, or with the authority of his partners, loss or injury is caused to any third party, or any penalty is incurred, the firm is liable therefor to the same extent as the partner.

Liability of firm for misapplication by partners. Where- a a partner acting within his apparent authority receives money or property from a third party and misapplies it, or b a firm in the course of its business receives money or property from a third party, and the money or property is misapplied by any of the partners while it is in the custody of the firm, the firm is liable to make good the loss.

What is Partnership and what are the essential elements of Partnership?

Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all. A partnership can be for a fixed period of time or it may be limited to a specific project or it may be dissolved at will. Essential elements of Partnership are:- There must be an agreement among all partners. Partner should agree to share the profits or the losses. All partners together, or any one, on behalf of the others must carry on the business.

The Indian Partnership Act, 1932

Can a person who is not the citizen of India become a partner in Indian firm? The Partnership Act does not prohibit a non-citizen from joining a Indian Partnership firm, subject to necessary clearances and permission from satisfactory authorities in this regard.

What is the capital of the partnership firm? Capital is the initial amount in cash or kind contributed by the partners to start the business. Contribution is based on the agreement between the parties.

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Can a minor be admitted to the benefits of Partnership? Since a minor has no legal capacity to enter cannot become a partner in a firm. Moreover, partnership with a minor is voidable initio. However, a minor may be admitted to the benefits of partnership according to Sec. With the consent of all the partners of a firm, a minor gets a right to such a share of the property and of the profits of the firm as may be agreed upon by the partners.

The minor may have the right of access to inspect and copy the accounts of the firm. The minor has no right to sue for accounts or for payment of share etc.


In such a case the valuation is to be made as per rules. When there is such a suit by the minor through his guardian , the partners may dissolve the firm. The court may proceed as in a suit for dissolution and for settlement of accounts. It may determine the share of the minor. What is holding out? According to Section 28, a person who by written or spoken words, or by conduct, represents himself or knowingly permits himself to be represented, to be a partner in a firm, is liable, as a partner in that firm, to anyone who has, on the faith of any such representation, given credit to the firm.

This is the doctrine of holding out, which is part of the law of estoppel. A person becomes ordinarily liable for the debts of a firm if he is a partner. But a person who is not a partner may also become liable to a third party, if he represent himself as a partner and induces the third party to give credit to the firm.

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The objective is to protect the interests of innocent third persons. The example is the case of a retiring partner.

If he retires, without giving public notice but uses the firm name, bills, letter heads etc. It A has given advances to such a retired partner R, he may sue R as a partner of the firm, and recover his advances. What are rights of a partner?Even where notice of dissolution has not been given, there will be no liability for subsequent acts of other partners in the case of: Though a minor cannot be a partner in a irm, he can nonetheless be admitted to the beneits of partnership under Section 30 of the Act.

A partnership can be dissolved only in accordance with the manner prescribed under the Act. Provided that nothing in this sub- section shall apply to any firm registered under any such name before the date of the commencement of the Indian Partnership Maharashtra Amendment Act, Maharashtra Act 29 of The impact of these Sections is that the act of a partner which is done to carry on, in the usual way, business of the kind carried on by the irm, binds the irm, provided that the act is done in the irm name, or any manner expressing or implying an intention to bind the irm.

Section It is the duty of every partner to share in equal proportions the losses suffered by the irm.